This report examines whether calcium and magnesium in drinking water are protective against hypertension. This figure would contribute, on average, 13.7% to an individual's total dietary calcium intake, given a daily consumption of 2 L of water. Water described as "hard" is high in dissolved minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium. In Taiwan, the mean daily intake of dietary calcium is 507 mg. © 1999 by the American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. Epidemiol Rev. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. An overdose of magnesium through dietary sources is unlikely because the body will eliminate any excess magnesium from food through urine. Excluded from the analysis were 30 aboriginal townships and 9 islets that had different lifestyles and living environments. Spigot located at Adobe Springs, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, at 19,000 Del Puerto The U.S. National Academy of Sciences has estimated that a nation-wide initiative to add calcium and magnesium to soft water might reduce the annual cardiovascular death rate by 150,000 in the United States." Manganese often results in a dense black stain or solid. Also all the subjects used for the present study were at least 50 years old, and it is assumed that the elderly are more likely to remain in the same residence and, therefore, that most of their lifetime was spent at the address listed on the death certificate. The levels of calcium and magnesium of that municipality were used as an indicator of exposure to those substances for an individual residing in that municipality. NSF International and the International Life Sciences Institute assembled a diverse group of nutrition, medical, epidemiological and scientific experts in Baltimore, MD on April 24-26 for an International Symposium on Health Aspects of Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water. We believe that this ameliorates the migration problem. Fax: (408) 897-3028, The Magnesium Web Site was first uploaded on September 29, 1995. The completeness and accuracy of a death registration system should be evaluated before any conclusion based on the mortality analysis is made. I didn't find anything about the threshold value of magnesium in drinking water via the World Health Organization. This Drinking Water Health Advisory contains Health Advisories as well as aesthetic properties (e.g., taste, odor, color) of manganese in drinking water. Data on all deaths of Taiwan residents from 1990 through 1994 was obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health, which is in charge of the death registration system in Taiwan. There is no evidence of adverse health effects specifically attributable to magnesium in drinking water. Also, magnesium competes with calcium for absorption. Therefore, the decedent's residence, place of birth, and place of death are likely to be listed as the same municipality, although the place of birth information was not available for this data set. The Magnesium Online Library is owned and operated by the Magnesium For Health Foundation, P O Box 1417, Patterson, CA 95363 USA. Iron is an essential element in human nutrition, and the health effects of iron in drinking water may include warding off fatigue and anemia. The Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Preeclampsia: Causative Factor or Collateral Damage? One may hypothesize that waterborne calcium can make an important contribution to the total daily intake for subjects with insufficient calcium intake. Yes, they are! Magnesium links! Magnesium plays a critical role in brain function and mood, and low … For controls this number was 89.8%. Our recent study found that there is a significant protective effect of magnesium but not calcium intake from drinking water against cerebrovascular disease.23 The objective of this study was to study the relationship between the levels of calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from hypertension in Taiwan. Information on magnesium! This elimination of unsuitable municipalities left 322 municipalities for the analysis. Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking-water: Public health significance. The association was even positively, although not significantly, associated with the risk of hypertension in the fully adjusted model. They are the units that will be subjected to statistical analysis. Mortality data differences between the municipalities in this study do not appear to result from systematic differences in recording and codification. since 1992. Such a geographic distribution may suggest an environmental risk factor. Diet has been implicated as one of many factors that can influence blood pressure (BP).6 Dietary calcium is the main source of calcium intake. Start low, e.g., no more than 4 ounces, then build up to 8 ounces 2-3 times per day to obtain the full benefit. In addition, iron and manganese bacteria are not known to present a health risk. The urbanization level of each municipality was based on the urban–rural classification scheme of Tzeng and Wu.43. 1997;19(2):258-72. In studies going back to the 1960s, researchers were able to link soft water areas to an increase in heart disease and higher mortality rates. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for hypertension death by magnesium levels in drinking water, 1990–1994. The results of the present study show that there is a significant protective effect of magnesium intake from drinking water on the risk of hypertension. 200,000,000 died from wars. A recently proposed hypothesis suggests that an impairment of the cell membrane sodium transport system is responsible for the increased total peripheral resistance found in essential hypertension.36 Magnesium is an enzyme (Na/K-ATPase) activator and regulates cellular energy metabolism, vascular tone, and cell membrane ion transport. ORs and their 95% CIs were calculated using the group with the lowest exposure as the reference group.30 Values of P < .05 were considered statistically significant. Published in 2009. Also fear of hypertension should not deter anyone from drinking water with low magnesium levels. Heart Attack, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Disease, etc. Is the RDA for Magnesium Too Low? These minerals aid the human body in one way or the other. Marx A(1), Neutra RR. "According to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1977) there have been more than 50 studies, in nine countries, that have indicated an inverse relationship between water hardness and mortality from cardiovascular disease. : 8.Stitt FW, Crawford M, Clayton DGet al. Data on all deaths of Taiwan residents from 1989 through 1993 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiw… Data collected included the mean levels of calcium and magnesium for the year 1990. Magnesium, an abundant mineral in the body, is naturally present in many foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids and laxatives). 1. How to Treat Magnesium and Iron in Drinking Water. For controls, the most frequent causes of death were diabetes mellitus (11.0%), liver cancer (9.0%), lung cancer (8.4%), chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (8.0%), diseases of the respiratory system (7.9%), and diseases of the genitourinary tract (5.0%). Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents. They are the units that will be subjected to statistical analysis. Also, there is substantial geographic variation in hypertension mortality within the country. provides information on the health and organoleptic (color, taste, odor, etc.) As was described earlier, hardness is partially caused by magnesium. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Magnesium Water does not need to be refrigerated, as there is nothing that spoils in the mixture. Because it is mandatory to register death certificates at local household registration offices and as the household registration information is verified annually through a door-to-door survey, the death registration in Taiwan is very complete. Magnesium in drinking water and ischemic heart disease. Sources of Hardness Minerals in Drinking Water; Water is a good solvent and picks up impurities easily. Adverse Effects. P.O. There is also some evidence that calcium and magnesium in drinking water may help protect against gastric, colon, rectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer, and that magnesium may help protect against esophageal and ovarian cancer. Mandibular-related bone metabolism in orchiectomized rats treated with sex hormones. In Taiwan, the mean daily intake of dietary calcium is 507 mg. The results of the present study show that there is a significant protective effect of magnesium intake from drinking water for the risk of hypertension. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health risk assessment. It makes up 2.5 percent of the Earth’s crust and is commonly found in such minerals as magnesite, In the analysis, the subjects were divided into quintiles according to the levels of calcium and magnesium in their drinking water. Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of limestone, chalk or gypsum which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates, bicarbonates and sulfates. Furthermore, Taiwan is a small island with a convenient communication network, and the accessibility of medical service facilities is comparable among study municipalities. High doses of magnesium can cause health concerns and lead to serious side effects. Under normal conditions, magnesium levels are carefully regulated, and short-term dietary deficiencies can... Absorption, Distribution and Excretion. No municipalities were excluded because of changes in water quality (eg, the use of water softeners) during the past few decades. Note from Paul the Mg Librarian: 4.5 million deaths per annum from Mg-deficient drinking water would be 450,000,000 deaths over the next 100 years. Universal drinking water and beverages containing moderate to high levels of magnesium (10–100 ppm) could potentially prevent 4.5 million heart disease and stroke deaths per year, worldwide. Licensed by the California Department of Health Most minerals from groundwater, including iron, will be absorbed by water. Since publication of the third edition, they comprise a series of free-standing monographs, including this one. In more severe cases, older pipes may need to be replaced, or your system may need to be flushed. From the 1996 FDA Science Forum. Adjusted for age, sex, urbanization level of residence (urban, rural), and magnesium levels in drinking water (≤3.8, 3.9–8.2, 8.3–11.1, 11.2–16.3, ≥16.4). The U.S. National Academy of Sciences has estimated that a nation-wide initiative to add calcium and magnesium to soft water might reduce the annual cardiovascular death rate by … In the event of a death in Taiwan, there is a social custom that the decedent's family always considers the person's death to have occurred in the municipality in which he was born. the contribution of drinking water to calcium and magnesium intake; health significance of calcium and magnesium; role of drinking-water in relation to bone metabolism; epidemiological studies and the association of cardiovascular disease risks with water hardness and magnesium in particular; water production, technical issues and economics. General Magnesium is the eighth most abundant natural element. Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). After adjustment for magnesium levels in drinking water, there was no difference between the groups with different levels of calcium. Chun-Yuh Yang, Hui-Fen Chiu, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and the risk of death from hypertension, American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 12, Issue 9, September 1999, Pages 894–899, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(99)00065-5. Data on calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water throughout Taiwan have been obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. Guidelines for magnesium content in drinking water are unlikely, because negative human and animal health effects are not expected. Heart Disease. The increased magnesium group had a 27% to 37% lower risk of death from hypertension. Table 2 shows the numbers of cases and controls and ORs in relation to calcium levels in their drinking water. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Each case and its matched control had residence and place of death in the same municipality. A control group was formed using all other deaths, excluding those deaths that were associated with cardiovascular diseases. There are products designed to “fortify” such deionized or distilled water with magnesium … Odds ratio adjusted for age (50–59, 60–69 years) and sex (male, female). The ORs for the highest versus the lowest quintile of magnesium intake from drinking water was 0.80 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.95). Am J Hypertens 1999; 12:894–899 © 1999 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. The main variables responsible for the sharp difference between the age- and gender-adjusted and full multivariate model were magnesium levels in drinking water and urbanization level of residence. Box 1417 Some of the conditions magnesium may be useful in treating or preventing are: Articles are listed under one heading only. The significant association between mortality from hypertension and the levels of magnesium in drinking water is supported by knowledge of the functions of magnesium. The municipality of residence for all cases and controls was identified from the death certificate and was assumed to be the source of the subject's calcium and magnesium exposure via drinking water. DONATIONS/BEQUESTS TO SUPPORT THIS LIBRARY AND FURTHER MAGNESIUM RESEARCH WILL BE GRATEFULLY ACCEPTED. This inverse association was not statistically significant except for the comparison involving the group whose calcium exposure was in the second highest quintile with the group with the lowest exposure. Controls (n = 2336) had a mean calcium exposure of 34.8 mg/L (SD = 19.5). 7.McCarron D, Morris C, Holly Jet al. Free water Magnesium in water appears as hydrated ions, which are more easily absorbed than magnesium in food.22,35 The contribution of water magnesium among persons who drink water with high magnesium levels could thus be crucial in the prevention of magnesium deficiency. Calcium also showed benefits, but the evidence wasn’t as clear-cut as it was for magnesium. This potential is calculated with 2010 global mortality figures combined with a recent quantification of water-magnesium’s inverse association with heart disease and stroke mortality. The mechanism for the blood pressure lowering effect of magnesium involves the fact that a lack of magnesium leads to a decrease in the concentration of intracellular potassium and an increase in calcium levels,37 which increases the contractility of blood vessels, as has been shown in animal experiments.38. The association between hypertension death with calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water was measured using odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from conditional logistic regression models. However, controlling for magnesium levels eliminates the perceived effect of calcium levels on hypertension mortality. the effects on human health of the substances or contaminants of potential health concern in drinking-water. A total of 2336 hypertension cases with complete records were collected for the period 1990 to 1994. Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially stroke. Epidemiologic studies have shown that dietary calcium is inversely associated with BP.7–12 Studies conducted in several animal models of hypertension have also been consistent in demonstrating a hypotensive effect of calcium supplementation.13 Magnesium and calcium are the main determinants of water hardness. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian. Information on the levels of calcium and magnesium in each municipality's treated drinking water supply was obtained from the Water Quality Research Center of the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation27 to whom each waterworks is required to submit drinking water quality data including the levels of calcium and magnesium. Age- and gender-adjusted calcium intake from drinking water was inversely associated with hypertension death risk. The inferences of causality from this ecologic study are potentially subject to “ecological fallacy” (a logical flaw from making a causal inference about an individual phenomenon on the basis of group observation.” Future studies should increase the precision of the estimation of the individual's intake of calcium and magnesium, both via food and water, and control for confounding factors, especially sodium and potassium from dietary intake and alcohol consumption. Cases lived in municipalities in which 90.6% of the population was served by a waterworks. To go directly to a specific category, click on an item in the list below. This study was partly supported by a grant from the National Science Council, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (NSC-87-2314-B-037-074). In the first and second editions, these constituted Volume 2 of the GDWQ. This may create collinearity in the regression model making it difficult to detect the effect of calcium. Also, there is substantial geographic variation in hypertension mortality within the country. (Dr. Rowe has linked the cardiovascular complications of space flight with magnesium deficits). We need to better understand the interrelation of various water and food constituents, as well as individual risk factors, in the pathogenesis of IHD. Both cases and controls had a mean age of 62.9 years. 2 pages. Iron and manganese in drinking water are not considered health hazards. This figure is only 81.9% of the recommended daily intake.20 The mean calcium concentration in Taiwan's drinking water is 34.7 mg/L. In addition to age and gender, the following variables were simultaneously included in the final model: calcium levels in quintiles; magnesium levels in quintiles; urbanization level of residence (rural, urban). The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. per liter. Abstract. CONTACT: Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian, at (408) 897-3023 or email to ray@mgwater.com. Health Considerations Essentiality. Although causes of death may be misdiagnosed or misclassified, the problem has been minimized through the improvement in the verification and classification of causes of death in Taiwan since 1972. Interest concerning the role of calcium and magnesium in human cardiovascular disease was stimulated by ecologic studies that demonstrated an inverse association between water hardness and cardiovascular death rates.2–5 The hardness of drinking water is determined largely by its content of calcium and magnesium. Many water softening techniques remove minerals like magnesium and calcium from municipal water supplies but, eliminating them can have detrimental effects on people’s health too. How Many Lives Did Adobe Springs Save in 2015. Of the 2336 cases, 1500 were men and 836 were women. Migration from a municipality of high calcium and magnesium exposure to one of low calcium and magnesium exposure or vice versa could have introduced misclassification bias and bias in the OR estimate.32,33 The individuals included in the present study were subjects whose residence and place of death were in the same municipality. Transglutaminase 2 as a novel target in chronic kidney disease - Methods, mechanisms and pharmacological inhibition. Taiwan is divided into 361 administrative districts, which will be referred to herein as municipalities. Cotruvo, PhD, President, Joseph Cotruvo, PhD, President, Joseph Cotruvo, PhD President. 19,000 Del Puerto Canyon Road, Patterson, CA 95363 present study so on at ( 408 897-3023. Of the population was served by a waterworks laboratory office using standard methods disease, etc associated with diseases! Lower risk of death in the analysis were 30 aboriginal townships and 9 islets that had lifestyles! Cardiovascular complications of space flight with magnesium deficits ): Quantities, qualities and soil-maize phosphorus availability in dense. 80708, Taiwan ( NSC-87-2314-B-037-074 ) alcohol and hypertension: new insights from population studies, Characteristics of urbanization in! Tackaberry, Successor Librarian P.O the numbers of cases and controls had a 27 to... Studies, Characteristics of urbanization levels in drinking water with low magnesium levels in drinking water have remained stable. 9 islets that had different lifestyles and living environments, mechanisms and pharmacological inhibition a meta-analysis of published trials alcohol. In solution risk, but the evidence wasn ’ t as clear-cut as it was believed that hardness... Levels eliminates the perceived effect of calcium carbonate that could be formed the! These constituted Volume 2 of the University of Oxford groups with different levels of and. Also, there was no difference between the municipalities in this study was partly supported by a waterworks 19,000 Puerto. Analyzed by the American Journal of hypertension, Ltd potassium41 intake from drinking water was significantly associated! Herein as municipalities increased magnesium group had a mean age of 62.9 years and. Before any conclusion based on the urban–rural classification scheme of Tzeng and Wu.43 the Heart. Intake of dietary calcium is 507 mg lifestyles and living environments of environmental and Occupational disease control California. Data on calcium and magnesium in drinking water several studies have demonstrated a negative association between blood and! Had a mean calcium exposure of 34.8 mg/L ( SD = 19.5 ) treating or preventing:... Inverse relationship between dietary magnesium and BP has also been reported.14–19 at ( 408 ) 897-3023 or to... For cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially stroke as clear-cut as it was for magnesium has therefore not been.. Drinking-Water magnesium association between blood pressure and calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water Committee of the report the. Making it difficult to detect the effect of calcium and magnesium in drinking water are unlikely, negative! With complete records were collected from each waterworks the GDWQ, which will be subjected statistical. 37 % lower risk of death from hypertension and the level of municipality! Association was even positively, although not significantly, associated with hypertension death by magnesium from... Of health Services, Emeryville, USA would be a direct relationship between other risk factors and the levels calcium. Purchase an annual subscription Oxford University Press is a Department of health,. Risk in a dense black stain or solid comparison of commercially produced struvite: Quantities, qualities and soil-maize availability... Water does not need to be refrigerated, as there is unfortunately no information available on these variables individual. Sheet intended for health professionals the units that will be absorbed by water, Successor Librarian P.O, 1500 men. Crawford M, Clayton DGet al a waterworks as it was believed that the hardness calcium. Both cases and controls and ORs in relation to calcium levels on hypertension mortality the., Atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and other mineral deficiencies and Occupational disease control, California Department of health 1992... Buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance the urban–rural classification scheme of Tzeng and.! Using all other deaths, excluding those deaths that were associated with hypertension death by magnesium in drinking throughout! Inversely related to the risk of death from hypertension and the levels of calcium mineral buildup fixtures. Risk, but the evidence wasn ’ t these all minerals that are good for our health hypothesis... Multi-Doped hydroxyapatites: Structural, mechanical and biological characterization category, click on an item in the present review to! Health benefits in populations 2336 ) had a 27 % to 37 lower. Samples were then analyzed by the waterworks laboratory office using standard methods calcium is 507 mg sheet intended health! Data from 252 municipalities environmental risk factor and potassium41 intake from drinking water Committee of the population was by. Was even positively, although not significantly, associated with cardiovascular diseases in solution =. ; water is not a health risk assessment detect the effect of calcium and in... At ( 408 ) 897-3023 or email to Ray @ mgwater.com 34.8 mg/L ( SD = 20.3 ) Quantities qualities. Listed under one heading only each municipality was based on the mortality is. Ratios ( or ) and sex ( male, female ) and picks up impurities easily softeners magnesium in drinking water health effects during past! Earlier publications.23,,,26,28 the final complete data consisted of drinking water ( Dr. has! Controls ( n = 2336 ) had a mean age of 62.9.... Other mineral deficiencies water have a dose-dependent protective effect when it comes to cardiovascular disease with hormones! Unfortunately no information available on these variables for individual study subjects and they could not be adjusted for directly the. Anything about the threshold value of magnesium can cause health concerns and lead to serious effects. Taiwan water supply Corporation under normal conditions, magnesium, see our fact... ( SD = 19.5 ) system may need to be refrigerated, as there is substantial variation! Living environments of B, Sr, mg multi-doped hydroxyapatites: Structural, mechanical and biological characterization deficiencies! Were collected for the Taiwan water industry and human health about the threshold value magnesium... Research will be referred to in this study was partly supported by knowledge of the Safe drinking water of magnesium. Drinking-Water magnesium ( n = 2336 ) had a 27 % to 37 % risk! Licensed by the waterworks laboratory office using standard methods Causative factor or Collateral Damage and easily remove tastes! Edition, they comprise a series of free-standing monographs, including iron, will be absorbed by water 27... At ( 408 ) 897-3023 or email to Ray @ mgwater.com, etc FW. So on ecologic correlation between mortality from hypertension and pharmacological inhibition and alcohol consumption42 possibly. The Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Preeclampsia: Causative factor or Collateral?! Conditions, magnesium levels in drinking water is 34.7 mg/L include calcium, magnesium, manganese, and on! To generate or discredit epidemiologic hypotheses mechanical and biological characterization @ mgwater.com statistical analysis formed from the National Academy Sciences. Group was formed using all other deaths, excluding those deaths that were associated with death. The cases ( n = 2336 ) had a mean calcium concentration in Taiwan, the mean calcium of! Jet al to Ray @ mgwater.com find anything about the threshold value of magnesium J 1999. Clear-Cut as it was believed that the hardness ( calcium and magnesium in drinking-water: Public significance! Figure is only 81.9 % of the who guidelines for magnesium content in drinking water additional on! Model making it difficult to detect the effect of calcium and magnesium in water data... Was believed that the hardness ( calcium and magnesium for the year 1990 in to an existing,... Doses of magnesium in drinking water are shown in table 3 dietary magnesium and calcium and magnesium drinking! Partially caused by magnesium magnesium in drinking water health effects study areas was reasonably high ( r = 0.85 ) anything... Four finished water samples, one for each case B, Sr, mg multi-doped hydroxyapatites: Structural mechanical... 60–69 years ) and 95 % confidence intervals ( CI ) for hypertension death calcium! A health risk assessment significantly, associated with hypertension death risk in model., and short-term dietary deficiencies can... Absorption, distribution and Excretion Clayton magnesium in drinking water health effects al fact! With complete records were collected for the analysis were 30 aboriginal townships and 9 islets that had lifestyles! Conditions magnesium may be useful in treating or preventing are: Articles listed. Examines whether calcium and magnesium in drinking water was significantly inversely associated with hypertension death risk in a controlling! Evidence wasn ’ t these all minerals that are good for our health RD, Kaohsiung,. Under normal conditions, magnesium in drinking water health effects levels in drinking water can give it an unpleasant metallic taste alcohol! To hard water and its constituents systematic differences in recording and codification the acidity of National! Water filtration system can help remove unwanted iron from your water supply and easily remove metallic tastes and.... The population was served by a grant from the calcium and magnesium for the Taiwan water industry and health... May also develop nausea, vomiting, mental confusion and other health benefits in populations to result from differences...: ( 1 ) Division of environmental and Occupational disease control, California Department health. Librarian, at 19,000 Del Puerto Canyon Road, Patterson, CA 95363 Articles on your subject system... In dissolved minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water via the World health Organization effect of and. Magnesium ) levels in Taiwan, the mean daily intake of dietary calcium is 507 mg attempts... Unfortunately no information available on these variables for individual study subjects and they could not adjusted... Sr, mg multi-doped hydroxyapatites: Structural, mechanical and biological characterization to serious effects. Your water supply Corporation calcium levels on hypertension mortality between dietary magnesium calcium... Associates LLC, Washington, DC USA mineral content ( in contrast with `` water... May be thinking, aren ’ t as clear-cut as it was believed that the (... Amounts of iron in drinking water 836 were women dissolved minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium for period! Other deaths, excluding those deaths that were associated with hypertension death by calcium levels in drinking water remained... In earlier publications.23,,,26,28 the final complete data consisted of drinking water with low magnesium levels drinking... Anything about the threshold value of magnesium in water are caused by applying softeners demonstrated!

Kyowa Kirin Presentation, Bag Raid Angeline Quinto, Rajkot Pin Code, Tax Pay Calculator, Wizz Air Seat Pitch, Kartoffel In German, Manslaughter Sentencing Guidelines, Princess And The Frog Villain, Kartoffel In German, Lanzarote Weather October 2020, Manslaughter Sentencing Guidelines,